Agronomy

The word  Agronomy' has been derived from the Greek derivatives 'Agros' and 'nomos' which respectively mean 'field' and 'management'. Agronomy is the science that deals with scientific management and production technology in crop production particularly referring to cereals, pulses, oil seeds, forage and fodder crops. It also deals with crop improvement related works. In addition, studies relating to weed management, crop eco-physiology, Integrated Nutrient Management, Soil and water conservation and management also comes under the broad subject Agronomy.

Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology and soil science. Agronomists today are involved in developing models for Good Agriculture Practices (GAP), Climate resilient agriculture, precision farming, and crop ideotype concept.

Krishi Vigyan Kendra Dakshina Kannada

Division of Agronomy

The following OFTs were implemented in 2013-14

  1. Assessment of Red Rice Variety Pratyasa for rabi season in Dakshina  Kannada district.

    Background:
    Paddy is the main staple food crop of Dakshina Kannada District grown in an area nearly 55000 ha of three seasons namely Kharif Rabi and summer. The preference of the farmers of this region  is for red kernel rice for consumption. While MO-4 is the ruling variety for Kharif season, lack of suitable varieties for rabi season was identified as a problem. The seeds of recommended varieties of red kernel rice namely Jyothi, Mukthi etc are old and not included in seed chain.  If the harvest of  Jyothi is delayed due to untimely rains, there is likely problem of grain shattering leading to yield losses. Under such circumstances, considering the demand of farmers for a new variety for rabi season and also the fact that Kasargod District of Kerala and coastal Dakshina Kannada District  have similar agroclimatic condition  a new variety “ PRATYASA “ released by KAU, Thrissur in 2009  which performed better in Kasargod District  under Front line demonstrations was chosen to assess its performance as an alternative for Jyothi Variety for Rabi season.

    Mode of implementation
    OFT was implemented in the cluster village of  NADA of Belthangady taluk by choosing five farmers under farmer participatory mode.  Training was conducted and regular field visits were made.

    Results of OFT:2013-14
    The results indicated that Pratyasa variety  performed better than Jyothi variety and local check  in terms of yield. Pratyasa recorded higher grain yield of 38.0 q/ha compared to Jyothi variety (34.0) and local check “SIXTY” variety (32.5q/ha). The increase in yield by Pratyasa over Jyothi was 11.7% and Local Check was 16.9%.  Pratyasa recorded BC ratio of 1.76 compared to Jyothi (1.40) and  Local check(1.40).

    In view of  results obtained the OFT was continued for 2nd year 2014-15 to assess its performance for another year.

    Second year 2014-15: Progress achieved so far 
    The OFT was implemented in Rabi-2014-15 in the village Shirlalu of Belthangady  taluk. A training on improved cultivation practices was conducted on 16-09-2014 and was attended by about 25 farmers. The pratyasa seeds were sown already by the farmers and is in seedling stage.

 FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATIONS  2013-14

  1. Mechanization in Paddy

    Rice  is the main staple food crop in the district. In spite of favorable climatic conditions to realize potential yield in rice  exists in the district, the average yield recorded is 22-25q/ha which is low compared to neighboring districts. The average Increase in rice production can  be   achieved by  improvement of irrigation facilities, introduction of high yielding varieties and judicious use of critical inputs However, shortage of labor and high labor cost is affecting timely operations in paddy  leading to  fallow land and diversion of paddy lands to other remunerative crops like Arecanut and rubber. Carrying out timely operation and reducing cost of cultivation is the prerequisite for enhancing the production and productivity of rice and as well as to make rice cultivation   commercially viable and profitable enterprise for the farmers. Rice is a labor intensive crop. About 850 to 900 man hours of labor is required for cultivating one hectare. Threshing,  transplanting, weeding and harvesting operations in rice cultivation consume most of the labor requirement  High labor demand during peak periods adversely affects timeliness of operation, thereby reducing the crop yield. Because of drudgery and notion that the farm operations are below the dignity, labor availability, in general, has decreased considerably to farm operations. To overcome these problems mechanization is the only option left and also the need of the hour.

    Agricultural mechanization is one critical input which not only facilitates timely completion of operations and thereby increases the production, labor saving, energy efficiency, productivity and profitability. Smaller land holding is one of the major constraints for mechanized farming in the district.  The fragmentation of land holdings limits the free movement of the machinery.  Poor investment capacity of small and marginal farmers to purchase the machinery and lack of customized hire services nearby restrict the spread of mechanization. Considering these aspects, there is a need to adopt selective mechanization to benefit all kinds of farmers.

    Results of the Front line Demonstration “Mechanization in Paddy” conducted during 2013-14.

    The FLD was implemented in Rabi season of 2013-14 in  the cluster Village Kadabettu of Bantwal Taluk  in an area of 4.0 ha (10.0 Acres) comprising of five demonstrations.

    The technology demonstrated consisted   of seed treatment, mat nursery preparation, mechanical transplanting of paddy using 8 row transplanter and  use of konoweeder. The technology transfer was through trainings method demonstrations and follow up field visits. The approach was   selective mechanization.

    The results indicated that mechanical transplanting recorded higher yield of 40.0 q/ha compared to 32.5 q/ha recorded in traditional practice an increase in yield by 25%. The yield parameters like no of tillers per hill and no of panicles per sq meter was more in mechanical transplanted paddy compared to traditional method of manual transplanting. The effective field capacity was 0.005 ha/hr in traditional manual transplanting compared to 0.16ha/hr in mechanical transplanted paddy. The cost of operation for transplanting was Rs.12500/ per ha in traditional manual transplanting compared to mechanical transplanting Rs.7500/- per ha. Thereby a saving of Rs. 5000/- per ha in transplanting operations and overall the total savings in the cultivation cost was Rs. 5875/- per ha in Mechanical transplanting.

    FRONT LINE DEMONSTRATIONS FOR THE YEAR 2014-15

    MECHANIZATION IN PADDY

    The FLD was implemented in the cluster village Pilathabettu of Bantwal taluk during rabi season of 2014-15. The villages included in the cluster village are  Pilathabettu, Allipade Nayanadu, Maranakatte, and Navoor.
     
    Progress achieved so far:
    Training was conducted on 16-09-2014 followed by method demonstration of mat nursery preparation. Transplanting completed in an area of 10.0 acres during First week of December-2014  with 10 demonstrations. The earlier transplanted are in grand growth  stage and later transplanted paddy seedlings are in tillering stage